List of Brewing References

Here is a list of Bryan’s references and important articles on brewing that may prove indispensable.

This page is constantly updated

Professional Schooling

Technical University of Munich in Weihenstephan

Institute of Brewing and Distilling

EdX- The Science of Brewing

Member of Master Brewers of the Americas

Member of American Society of Brewing Chemists

Member of Brauwelt

Member of Brewing Science

Brewing Textbooks

Wolfgang Kunze – “Technology of Brewing and Malting” – English Textbook

Ludwig Narziß – “Die Bierbrauerei, Band 2: Die Technologie der Wurzebereitung, 8 Auflage” – German Textbook

Ludwig Narziß, Werner Back, Martina Gastl and
Martin Zarnkow – “Abriss der Bierbrauerei” – German Textbook

Warner Back – Brewing Techniques in Practice

Jean DeClerck – “A Textbook of Brewing” – English Textbook

Hans Michael Esslinger – “A Handbook of Brewing: Processes, Technology and Markets” – English Textbook

D.E. Briggs – “Malts and Malting” – English Textbook

Briggs, Boulton, Brookes and Stevens – “Brewing Science and Practice” – English Textbook

George Fix, PH.D – “Principles of Brewing Science: A Study of Serious Brewing Issues, Edition 2“- English Textbook

Charles W. Bamforth – “Freshness” – English Textbook

W. Back, M. GastL, M. Krottenthaler, L. Narziß, M. Zarnkov – Brewing Techniques in Practice – English Textbook

Katherine Smart – Brewing Yeast Fermentation Performance – English Textbook

Makoto Kanauchi – Brewing Technology – English Textbook

Academic Papers

T. Mertens, T. Kunz, G. De Rouck, B. Gibson, G. Aerts and L. De Cooman – Effects of Mash Chelator Addition on Transition Metal Content and Oxidative Stability of Brewer’s Wort

Tuur Mertens, Thomas Kunz and Brian R. Gibson – Transition metals in brewing and their role in
wort and beer oxidative stability: a review

M. Aubert, S. Coventry, N. Shirley, N. Betts, T . Wurshum, R. Burton and M. Tucker – Differences in hydrolytic enzyme activity accompany natural variation in mature aleurone morphology in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

T. Mertens, T. Kunz and F.J. Methner – Assessment of Chelators in Wort and Beer Model Solutions

M. Ditrych, W. Filipowska, G. De Rouck, B. Jaskula-Goiris, G. Aerts, M. L. Andersen and L. De Cooman – Investigating the evolution of free staling aldehydes throughout the wort production process

M. Kanauchi and C.W. Bamforth – A Challenge in the Study of Flavour Instability

M. Kanauchi – Oxidative Enzyme Effects in Malt

Landaud, Lieben and Pique – Analysis of VDK Precursors in Beer

Vanderhaegen, Neven, Verachtert and Derdelinckx – The Chemistry of Beer Aging: A Critical Review

Kanauchi, Simon and Bamforth – Ascorbic Acid Oxidase in Barley and Malt and Its Possible Role During Mashing

Bamforth – Enzymic and Non-Enzymic Oxidation in the Brewhouse: A Theoretical Consideration

Bamforth – pH in Brewing: An Overview

Wainwright and Buckee – Barley and Malt Analysis: A Review

Barnhart – An Improved Gas-Stripping Column for Deoxygenating Water

Carvalho, Goncalves and Guido – Overall Antioxidant Properties of Malt and How They are Influenced by the Individual Constituents of Barley and the Malting Process

Agilent Technologies – DMS in Beer

Anness and Bamforth – Dimethyl Sulphide: A Review

Vuorilehto, Tamminen and Ylasaari – Electrochemical Removal of Dissolved Oxygen from Water

Vuorilehto, Tamminen and Ylasaari – Scale-up of an Electrochemical Cell for Oxygen Removal from Water

Bamforth and Parsons – New Procedures to Improve the Flavor Stability of Beer

DeClerck – rH and its Applications in Brewing (precursor to alkalinity)

Jurkova, Horak, Haskova, Culik, Cejka and Kellner – Control of Antioxidant Beer Activity by the Mashing Process

Stenholm and Home – A New Approach to Limit Dextrinase and its Role in Mashing

Zufall and Tyrell – The Influence of Heavy Metal Ions on Beer Flavor Stability

Narziss – Technological Factors of Flavor Stability

Stephenson, Biawa, Miracle and Bamforth – Laboratory-Scale Studies of the Impact of Oxygen on Mashing

Kunz, Frenzel, Wietstock and Methner – Possibilities to Improve the Antioxidative Capacity of Beer by Optimized Hopping Regimes

Cavano – Sulfites for Oxygen Control

Enge, Semik, Korbel, Srogl and Sekora – Technological Aspects of Infusion and Decoction Mashing

Nielson – The Control of Oxygen in Beer Processing

Bamforth – 125th Anniversary Review: The Non-Biological Instability of Beer

O’Rourke – The Role of Oxygen in Brewing

Lowe and Arendt – The Use and Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Malting and Brewing with their Relationshsips to Antifungal Activity, Mycotoxins and Gushing: A Review

Narziss – The German Beer Law

Pejin, Grujic, Marjanovic, Vujic and Kocic-Tanackov – Determination of Diacetyl and 2,3-Pentanedione in Beer by GC/MS Using Solid-Phase Extraction Columns

Yu et al – LOX-Less Barley

Ian L Ward – Nature of Beer Hazes

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry – Oxidative degradation of lipids during mashing

Norja Lasko – Lipolytic and Oxidative Changes of Barley lipids During Malting and Mashing

Norja Lasko – Infuelence of Barley and Malt Storage on Lipoxygenase Reaction

Christina Veronique Edwards van Muijen- Development of a Lexicon for Staling Aromas in North American Lager and Analysis of Consumer Preference and Difference

Hisao KURODA, Hidetoshi KOJIMA, Hirotaka KANEDA & Masachika TAKASHIO – Characterization of 9 Fatty Acid Hydroperoxide Lyase Like Activity in Germinating Barley Seeds That Transforms 9 S Hydroperoxy 10 E 12 Z

Naoyuki Kobayashi, Hirotaka Kaneda, Yukinobu Kano, and Shouhei Koshino – Determination of Fatty Acid Hydroperoxides Produced During the Production of Wort

H. Withouck, A. Boeykens, B. Jaskula, K. Goiris, G. De Rouck, C. Hugelier, G. Aerts –  Upstream Beer Stabilisation during Wort Boiling by Addition of Gallotannins and/or PVPP

Jeroen J. Baert, Jessika De Clippeleer, Paul S. Hughes, Luc De Cooman, and Guido Aerts – On the Origin of Free and Bound Staling Aldehydes in Beer

J. Savel – Fenton reaction acceleration using maltose and ascorbic acid

M. Cvengroschová, G. Šepel’ová, and D. Šmogrovicová – Effect of mashing-in temperature on free amino nitrogen concentration and foam stability of beer

Karl Wackerbauer, Stefan Meyna and Sascha Marre – Hydroxy fatty acids as indicators for ageing and the influence of oxygen in the brewhouse on the flavour stability of beer

M. Cvengroschová, G. Šepel’ová, D. Šmogrovicová – Influence of pre-isomerised hop on taste and foam stability of beer

H. Scheuren, F.-J. Methner, K. Sommer and M. Dillenburger – Thermodynamic Validation of Wort Boiling Systems

N. James and U. Stahl – Amino Acid Permeases and their Influence on Flavour Compounds in Beer

H. Scheuren, F.-J. Methner, K. Sommer and M. Dillenburger – Optimization of Wort Boiling by Process Reformulation and Design

T. Praet, F. van Opstaele, B. de Causmaecker, G. Bellaio, G. de Rouck, G. Aerts and L. de Cooman – De novo Formation of Sesquiterpene Oxidation Products during Wort Boiling and Impact of the Kettle Hopping Regime on Sensory Characteristics of Pilot-Scale Lager Beers

R. Feilner and F. F. Jacob – Improving Resistance to Aging and Increasing Haze Stability in Southern German Wheat Beer Through Process Optimization

B. Jaskula-Goiris, B. De Causmaecker, G. De Rouck, L. De Cooman and G. Aerts – Detailed Multivariate Modeling of Beer Staling in Commercial Pale Lagers

T. Kunz, H. Woest, E.-J. Lee, C. Müller and F.-J. Methner – Improvement of the Oxidative Wort and Beer Stability by Increased Unmalted Barley Proportion

T. Kunz, Ch. Reinhardt, L. Eon-Jeong, T. Dörr, A. Radowski and F.-J. Methner – Impact of Fermentable and Non-Fermentable Carbohydrates on the Sweetness, Improvement of Palate Fullness and SO2 Content in Beer

Saison, D., Vanbeneden, N., De Schutter, D. P., Daenen, L., Mertens, T., Delvaux, F. and

Delvaux, F. R. – Characterization of the Flavor and the Chemical Composition of Lager Beer after Ageing in Varying Conditions

J. Savel, P. Kosin and A. Broz – New oxidation destructive analysis (NODA)

C. Schmidt, A. Lagemann, A. Stephan and G. Stettner – Impact of the Use of Inline Pre-isomerized Hop Products on Analytical and Sensory Markers for Beer Ageing

C. Schönberger – The Role of Hops in Flavor Stability – Some Aspects

L. van Hoyweghen, M. Biendl and A. Heyerick – Radical Scavenging Capacity of hop-derived Products

Wietstock, P. C., Kunz, T., Pereira, F. and Methner, F.-J. – Metal Chelation Behavior of Hop Acids in Buffered Model Systems

Wietstock, P. C., Kunz, T. and Methner, F.-J. – Influence of Hopping Technology on Oxidative Stability and Staling-Related Carbonyls in Pale Lager Beer

P. C. Wietstock, and F.-J. Methner – Formation of Aldehydes by Direct Oxidative Degradation of Amino Acids via Hydroxyl and Ethoxy Radical Attack in Buffered Model Solutions

S. Coghe, G. Derdelinckx and F. R. Delvaux – Effect of non-enzymatic browning on flavour, colour and antioxidative activity of dark specialty malts – A review

S. Fischer, W. Ruß, R. Buckow, V. Heinz, H. Ulmer, J. Behr, R. Meyer-Pittroff, D. Knorr and

R. F. Vogel – Effects of hydrostatic high pressure on microbiological and technological characteristics of beer

M. Herrmann, M. Gastl, F. Thiele and W. Back – Malt volatile compounds (Part I)

M. Herrmann, S. Hanke, D. Kaltner and W. Back – Hop Volatile Compounds (Part I): Analysis of Hop Pellets and Seasonal Variations

S. Hanke, M. Herrmann, J. Rückerl, C. Schönberger, W. Back – Hop Volatile Compounds (Part II): Transfer Rates of Hop Compounds from Hop Pellets to Wort and Beer

T. Hoki, W. Saito, N. Hirota, M. Shirai, K. Takoi, S. Yoshida, M. Shimase, T. Saito, T. Takaoka, M.

Kihara and S. Yamada. – Breeding of Lipoxygenase-1-less Malting Barley Variety CDC PolarStar and Effect of Lipoxygenase-1-less Trait on Beer Quality at Pilot and Commercial Scale Brewing

Kühbeck, F., Back, W., and Krottenthaler, M. – Release of Long-Chain Fatty Acids and Zinc from Hot Trub to Wort

M. Kusche and E. Geiger – Kinetics of haze formation in beer – turbidity and flavan-3-ols

S. Loch-Ahring, F. Decker, S. Robbert and J. T. Andersson – Chill-haze – Identification and Determination of Haze-active Constituents by HPLC and Mass Spectrometry

M. Pöschl, S. Bauer, L. Leal, S. Illing, D. Stretz, U. Wellhoener, C. Tenge and E. Geiger – The Influence of Fermentation-Control on the Colloidal Stability and the Reducing Power of the Resulting Bottom Fermented Beers

T. Reiter, W. Back and M. Krottenthaler – Effects of Mash Acidification

G. De Rouck, B. Jaskula-Goiris, B. De Causmaecker, F. Van Opstaele, J. De Clippeleer,

L. De Cooman and G. Aerts – The impact of wort production on the flavor quality and stability of pale lager beer

J. Savel – Negative role of oxidised polyphenols and reductones in beer

C.Bamforth and A.Lentini –  The flavor instability of beer

L.Narziß – Brewhouses and their evolution

S.J.Rodgers – The reaction rate of sodium sulfite with dissolved oxygen

Casey, Chen, and Ingledew – High-Gravity Brewing: Production of High Levels of Ethanol Without Excessive Concentrations of Esters and Fusel Alcohols

Technical Papers

Tuur Mertens – Flavour Stability in Home Brewing

Braugersten Gemeinschaft – The Soul of Beer: Malting Barley from Germany

Northern Brewer Instructional Document – Advanced Bottle Conditioning

Scott – Spunding in the Bottle

Hall – Brew by the Numbers: Add Up What’s in Your Beer

Hall – M. Hall – Brew by the Numbers (Spreadsheet)

German Brewing Forum Team – On Brewing Bavarian Helles: Adapting to Low Oxygen Brewing – April 2016

Kallmeyer – To Mash or Not Mash – Kurz/Hoch

Hefebank Weihenstephan – Biological Acidification

Scientia Agricola – Sulfites in Beer: Reviewing Regulation, Analysis and Role

Taylor – The Brewing of Pilsner Beers

Troester – A Closer Look at Efficiency

Troester – Troubleshooting Brewhouse Efficiency

Troester – Understanding Efficiency

Kraus – pH in the Brewery: A Much Underestimated Brewing Variable (Weyermann Malting Company)

Holle – German Brewing Techniques

Brauwelt International – Some reflections on mashing –  Part 1 and Part 2

Brauwelt International – Tracking Staling Components in Beer

Brauwelt International – Process Engineering in  Brewing Science:  Brewhouse Fundamentals – Part 1

Brauwelt International – Possibilities for Optimizing Wort Preparation – Part 2

Brauwelt International – Do brewers need a starch modification index

ASTM International – Standard Specification for Chemical Passivation Treatments for Stainless Steel Parts

Shippensburg Pump Co – Oxygen Solubility

Casey – Origins and Controlling Esters and Higher Alcohols in Beer

Peddie – Ester Formation in Brewery Fermentations

Antioxidant Materials 

Antioxin SBT

Antioxin SB (also repackaged as Antiox-c)

Presentation on Antioxin SBT For Use in Belgian Beer

Antioxin Testing on Flavor and Stability

A New Alternative to Increase The Flavor Stability of The Beer. Using Antioxin SBT


Antioxidants-and-Flavor-Stability-Translated-Wurzbacher-2011.pdf- Translated to English by LOB


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Where we discuss the MOST current and up to date methods and procedures.

We have our own forum on Homebrew talk:

EDIT: We have been banned from HBT for “Witchcraft” (AKA actual Science).

Water Chemistry

Delange – Alkalinity Pt. 1

Delange – Alkalinity Pt. 2

Delange – Brewing Water: An Overview

Kolbach (Translated by Delange) – The Influence of Brewing Water on the pH of Wort and Beer

Delange – A Different Perspective on pH

Delange – Acidification of Water

Delange – Estimating Mash pH

Delange – Alkalinity, Hardness, Residual Alkalinity and Malt Phosphate: Factors in the Establishment of Mash pH

Delange – Some Observations on Mash pH Prediction and Control

Delange – Brewing Water

Troester – An Evaluation of the Suitability of ColorpHast Strips for pH Measurements in Home Brewing

Troester – The Effect of Brewing Water and Grist Composition on the pH of the Mash

Schwartz – Quickie Water Chemistry Primer